Did you know, heart disease is the main cause of death in Indonesia. In order to avoid this disease, it is important to know the causes of heart disease and its risk factors.
Heart disease consists of various types. Therefore, the causes also vary. What causes heart disease based on its type? Here’s more information.
Causes of Heart Disease by Type
Although the causes can be different, some types of heart disease are triggered by the same risk factors. The following causes of heart disease by type:
1. Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease is a type of heart disease that is commonly experienced by people. This disease is caused by narrowing of the heart’s blood vessels due to cholesterol buildup, so that the heart lacks oxygen-rich blood. Although rare, this disease is also triggered by damage to the coronary arteries. There are a number of risk factors for a person developing coronary heart disease, namely:
- Active smoker.
- Unhealthy diet.
2. Heart rhythm disturbances
Arrhythmia or heart rhythm disorder is a disease that is triggered by electrical impulses that keep the heart rhythm not optimal, resulting in fibrillation, tachycardia or bradycardia. This disease can be triggered by a number of risk factors, namely:
- Heart defects from birth.
- Smoking habit.
- Coronary heart disease.
- Heart valve disease.
- Drug abuse.
3. Congenital heart disease
Congenital heart disease is a problem with the function and shape of the heart from birth. The problem is in the blood vessels, heart walls, or heart valves. Although it is not known for certain, this disease can be triggered by a number of risk factors, namely:
- Drug use.
- Have a history of heart defects.
- People with families with heart disease.
- Use of drugs during pregnancy.
- Infected with the measles virus during pregnancy.
- Active smoker.
- Drug use during pregnancy.
Cardiomyopathy is the inability of the heart muscle to supply blood. This situation is at risk of being fatal, because it triggers heart failure, even cardiac arrest. Until now, the exact cause of cardiomyopathy is not known. However, there are a number of risk factors for cardiomyopathy to watch out for, namely:
- Damage to the heart muscle from a heart attack.
- Metabolic disorders, eg diabetes and thyroid disease.
- Uncontrolled high blood pressure.
- Vitamin B1 deficiency, eg beriberi.
- Pregnancy complications.
- Hemochromatosis, namely iron that accumulates in the heart muscle.
- Infected with COVID-19.
5. Heart infection
Causes of heart infections are viral, parasitic, or bacterial infections of the heart muscle (myocardium), the membrane that lines the heart (pericardium), and the inner lining of the heart (endocardium). A number of diseases triggered by this infection are endocarditis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. A number of risk factors for heart infection, namely:
- Infections, for example toxoplasma, Streptococcus, COVID-19, and candida.
- Drug use.
- Use of a catheter for a long period, for example a catheter for dialysis.
- Heart injury from an accident or collision.
- Not maintaining oral and dental hygiene.
- Other diseases, such as lupus, kidney failure, AIDS, cancer, and tuberculosis.
So that heart disease does not become a complication, there are two types of treatment that are applied, namely a healthy lifestyle and medication. If the disease is not resolved with these two treatments, medical measures will be applied, namely liver transplantation, coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass grafting.