Even though they both have diabetes, diabetes insipidus is actually different from diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by two main complaints, namely rapid thirst and frequent urination. What are the causes and symptoms of diabetes insipidus?
Unlike diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus is not related to increased blood sugar levels, diet or lifestyle. In addition, compared to diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus is found to be less common. Check out complete information about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of diabetes insipidus in this article.
Causes and Risk Factors of Diabetes Insipidus
When the function of the antidiuretic hormone is disrupted, namely controlling the body’s fluid levels, a condition called diabetes insipidus occurs. This condition triggers the production of excess urine, so that sufferers often urinate with large volumes.
There are several causes of diabetes insipidus, such as brain tumors, genetic complications, kidney disorders, and side effects of drugs. The main symptom of this disease is a large volume of urine. In people who do not have diabetes insipidus, urine is generally excreted as much as 1-2 liters or urinate 5-7 times per day. However, in people with diabetes insipidus, the volume of urine excreted per day can reach 3-20 liters or urinate every 15-20 minutes per day.
Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus
Early detection of diabetes insipidus symptoms is important so that it is handled appropriately. Here are some symptoms of diabetes insipidus that you need to watch out for:
- Frequent urination with large volumes.
- Get thirsty.
- Difficulty concentrating.
- Easy to get angry.
- Urine is pale or colorless.
- Frequently getting up at night to urinate.
Diabetes insipidus is also at risk for infants and children. However, the symptoms of diabetes insipidus in infants and children are rarely recognized, due to their inability to communicate. Therefore, the following are the symptoms of diabetes insipidus in infants and children that you need to know:
- Body temperature rises or hyperthermia.
- Easy to get angry.
- Weight loss drastically.
- Wetting the bed while sleeping.
- Growth slows down.
Management of Diabetes Insipidus
For optimal results, the treatment of diabetes insipidus should be adjusted to the cause. Here are some treatments for diabetes insipidus by doctors:
- Prescribing medications, for example vasopressin, hydrochlorothiazide, and desmopressin.
- Recommend patients to avoid dehydration by drinking plenty of water.
Patients are also advised to adopt a low-salt and low-protein diet to prevent excess urine production. In addition, patients are advised to monitor the amount and frequency of urine regularly.
Prevention of Diabetes Insipidus
Diabetes insipidus is a disease that cannot be avoided, especially if this condition is associated with other diseases that are difficult to prevent, such as tumors and genetic disorders. However, you can do diabetes insipidus prevention, which aims to avoid dehydration and reduce symptoms, in the following ways:
- Limiting foods high in protein and salt. These types of food are at risk of increasing thirst and frequent urination.
- Adequate body fluids by drinking at least 2.5 liters of water per day.
- Wash your hands regularly with soap and running water, and only eat cooked food to avoid diarrhea which exacerbates the symptoms of diabetes insipidus.