Diabetes Mellitus: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention Read Now

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Diabetes mellitus or high blood sugar is a serious disease characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels above normal levels. Find out more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

If not treated quickly, diabetes mellitus can cause complications, namely damage to the organs and tissues of the body, such as the heart, nerves, eyes and kidneys. What are the causes and symptoms of diabetes mellitus, and can it be treated? Here’s more information.

Causes and Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus

Although the cause of diabetes mellitus is not known with certainty, quoted from the American Diabetes Association, high blood sugar levels in the body are caused by the following factors:

1. Autoimmune conditions

Autoimmune conditions occur when the body’s immune system destroys the cells that produce the hormone insulin. The insulin hormone functions to absorb glucose in the body’s cells. If the body lacks insulin, glucose cannot be absorbed by the body’s cells, so blood sugar levels will increase.

2. Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance is a condition when the body’s cells cannot absorb blood sugar to be processed into energy. This condition signals that the body lacks sugar, so it actually breaks down glycogen. As a result, blood sugar levels increase or are called hyperglycemia.

In addition, here are some risk factors that cause diabetes mellitus:

  • genetics.
  • Obesity
  • Rarely exercise.
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Have certain infections.
  • Damage to immune system cells.

Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Symptoms for each person with diabetes can vary, depending on the type and severity. However, there are some common symptoms of diabetes, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, namely:

  • Frequent urination.
  • Often thirsty.
  • Constantly tired.
  • Frequent infections in the body, for example in the skin, gums, or vaginal area in women.
  • Decreased vision.
  • Significant weight loss for no apparent reason.
  • Ketones appear in the urine. Ketones are the result of the breakdown of fat and muscle due to insufficient insulin.

If you experience the above symptoms, see a doctor immediately. This aims to determine the cause and be given the right treatment, so you avoid serious complications.

Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin therapy is a type of treatment that is commonly given to people with diabetes mellitus, either type 1 or type 2. In addition, there are several treatments that aim to reduce diabetes symptoms, namely:

1. Healthy diet

Diabetics are encouraged to adopt a healthy diet to control blood sugar. Therefore, multiply the consumption of vegetables, fruits, foods high in protein, foods low in fat, and foods high in fiber. In addition, you need to limit foods high in saturated fat, refined carbohydrates and artificial sweeteners.

2. Routinely do physical activity

Excess weight increases the risk of diabetes. Therefore, it is recommended that you do physical activities, such as sports, so that your body weight remains ideal. Choose light sports, such as cycling, leisurely walking, and swimming. Do regular exercise to prevent the risk of diabetes getting worse.

In addition to the ways of dealing with diabetes above, it is important to take preventive measures to reduce the symptoms of diabetes, for example maintaining an ideal body weight and not smoking.

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