Diabetes Mellitus: Causes, Types, Symptoms, and Treatment Read Now

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reviewed by dr. Shabrina Wakid

Diabetes mellitus or a disease characterized by blood sugar levels that are higher than normal is a fairly serious disease. Find out more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

If not treated immediately, diabetes mellitus can cause complications, namely damage to organs and tissues, such as the heart, nerves, eyes and kidneys. What are the causes and symptoms of diabetes mellitus, and can it be treated? Here’s more information.

Table of Contents

Diabetic Type

In order to be handled properly, diabetes needs to be treated according to its type. Here are the types of diabetes you need to know:

1. Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a condition when the body from the start does not have the ability to produce the insulin it needs to process blood sugar into energy. This condition causes less blood sugar to be absorbed by the body, so it can accumulate. In contrast to type 2 diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes mellitus generally occurs early in children and adolescents.

Type 1 diabetes can be caused due to an anatomical disorder of the body, or an autoimmune disease when the body’s immune system damages the cells that produce the hormone insulin which functions to absorb glucose in the body’s cells. As a result, glucose cannot be absorbed by the body’s cells to be converted into energy, so that glucose levels rise. In addition, family medical history and vitamin D deficiency can increase the risk of type 1 diabetes.

Treatment of type 1 diabetes is usually done with insulin therapy or administration of drugs by a doctor. People with type 1 diabetes are advised to consult a doctor if they want to use drugs. This aims to prevent interactions or harmful side effects arising from the drugs consumed.

2. Type 2 Diabetes

Quoted from the American Diabetes Association, type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance or a condition when the body’s cells are immune to the hormone insulin. Insulin resistance is caused by various factors, such as genetics and obesity. In addition, there are several factors that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, such as age, family history, unhealthy lifestyle, weight, and consumption of certain drugs.

If not treated properly, type 2 diabetes has the risk of causing dangerous complications, such as disorders of the heart, nervous system, kidneys, blood vessels, teeth, gums and eyes.

Treatment for type 2 diabetes can be done in various ways, for example consuming low-sugar foods or choosing foods with a low glycemic index, insulin therapy, and drugs, for example, one type of drug or a combination of drugs according to your body’s condition.

In addition, prevention of type 2 diabetes can be done to stabilize blood sugar levels, for example maintaining an ideal body weight by increasing physical activity or exercise, checking blood sugar at a doctor or hospital early, not smoking and limiting drinking alcohol, and eating foods containing nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and good fats.

Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors

Here are some risk factors that cause diabetes mellitus:

  • genetics.
  • Obesity
  • Rarely exercise.
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Have certain infections.
  • Damage to immune system cells.

Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

Symptoms for each person with diabetes can vary, depending on the type and severity. However, there are some common symptoms of diabetes, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, namely:

  • Frequent urination.
  • Often thirsty.
  • Hungry often.
  • Constantly tired.
  • Frequent infections in the body, for example in the skin, gums, or vaginal area in women.
  • Decreased vision.
  • Significant weight loss for no apparent reason.

If you experience the above symptoms, see a doctor immediately. This aims to determine the cause and be given the right treatment, so you avoid serious complications.

Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin therapy is a type of treatment that can be given to people with diabetes mellitus, either type 1 or type 2. In addition, there are several treatments that aim to reduce diabetes symptoms, namely:

1. Healthy diet

Diabetics are encouraged to adopt a healthy diet to control blood sugar. Therefore, multiply the consumption of vegetables, fruits, foods high in protein, foods low in fat, and foods high in fiber. In addition, you need to limit foods high in saturated fat, refined carbohydrates and artificial sweeteners.

2. Routinely do physical activity

Excess weight increases the risk of diabetes. Therefore, it is recommended that you do physical activities, such as sports, so that your body weight remains ideal. Choose light sports, such as cycling, leisurely walking, and swimming. Do regular exercise to prevent the risk of diabetes getting worse.

In addition to the ways of dealing with diabetes above, it is important to take preventive measures to reduce the symptoms of diabetes, for example maintaining an ideal body weight and not smoking.

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