Diabetes mellitus is divided into two types, namely type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a condition when blood sugar levels are above normal limits and are generally caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. Find out more about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Although it often occurs in adults and the elderly, it does not rule out the possibility of type 2 diabetes experienced by young people with unhealthy lifestyles. Then, what are the causes and symptoms of type 2 diabetes and how to deal with it? Here’s more information.
What is Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an increase in blood sugar levels above normal limits, because the body’s cells are resistant to insulin. If not treated properly, type 2 diabetes has the risk of causing dangerous complications, such as disorders of the heart, nervous system, kidneys, blood vessels, teeth, gums and eyes.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes often does not show significant symptoms, so the sufferer does not realize that he has diabetes. In order to be treated as soon as possible, here are the early symptoms of type 2 diabetes that you need to know:
- Easily thirsty and hungry.
- Frequent urination.
- Losing weight for no apparent reason.
- Vulnerable to infection.
- Skin problems, such as itching and black skin on the neck, armpits and groin.
- Hands and feet are often numb and tingling.
- Wounds that take a long time to heal.
- sexual dysfunction.
Causes and Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes
Quoted from the American Diabetes Association, type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance or a condition when the body’s cells are immune to the hormone insulin, so that more and more insulin is needed to maintain normal blood sugar levels. Insulin resistance can be caused by various factors, such as genetics and obesity.
In addition, there are several factors that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, such as age, family history, unhealthy lifestyle and consumption of certain drugs.
Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Although it cannot be cured, type 2 diabetes can be managed appropriately by adopting the following healthy lifestyle:
1. Healthy diet
Type 2 diabetes sufferers will be recommended a healthy diet by a doctor, namely consuming foods low in sugar and choosing foods with a low glycemic index. This type of food does not cause a drastic spike in blood sugar levels. A high-fiber diet with increased fruit and vegetable consumption will also be recommended.
2. Take medicine
If the method above is not effective in lowering blood sugar levels, the doctor will give diabetes drugs to reduce blood sugar levels. The medicines given generally start with one type of drug or can also be combined with drugs according to the condition of your body.
3. Insulin therapy
This method is done by giving insulin injections if diabetes drugs are not effective in reducing symptoms.
In addition, self-care at home can be done to keep blood sugar levels normal, namely:
- Maintaining ideal body weight by increasing physical activity or sports.
- Check blood sugar regularly.
- Do not smoke and limit drinking alcohol.
- Eat foods with nutritional content, such as vitamins, minerals, protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and good fats.