What is Diabetes? Know the Causes and Symptoms Read Now

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Diabetes is a condition when blood sugar rises because it cannot be absorbed by the body to be converted into energy. If not treated quickly, diabetes risks life-threatening complications, such as damage to organs and tissues, such as the heart, nerves, eyes and kidneys.

Diabetes is an increase in blood sugar. Blood sugar is controlled by the insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. However, when the pancreas cannot produce the insulin the body needs, it builds up in the blood and causes diabetes. What are the causes, symptoms and treatment of diabetes? Here’s more information.

Causes of Diabetes

The causes of diabetes depend on the type, namely type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here’s the explanation:

1. Type 1 diabetes

This type of diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system actually damages pancreatic cells that produce insulin, so that blood sugar rises and damages the body’s organs. Although the cause is not certain, genetic and environmental factors can increase the risk of type 1 diabetes.

2. Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. This type of diabetes occurs when the body’s cells don’t react to insulin, so they don’t function properly or it’s called insulin resistance.

Diabetes Risk Factors

There are various factors that can increase the risk of type 1 diabetes, namely:

  • Families with a history of type 1 diabetes.
  • Children or youth aged 4-14 years.
  • Injury to the pancreas due to tumors, infections, side effects after surgery, or accidents.
  • Have an autoimmune disease, such as Addison’s disease or Graves’ disease.

In addition, there are several factors that can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes:

  • Families with a history of type 2 diabetes.
  • Over 45 years old.
  • Have high cholesterol.
  • Prediabetes.
  • Rarely exercise.
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension.

Diabetic Symptoms

The following are the symptoms experienced by people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes:

  • Frequent urination.
  • Often thirsty.
  • Get tired.
  • Vulnerable to infection in the body, for example in the skin, gums, or vaginal area in women.
  • Decreased vision.
  • Significant weight loss for no apparent reason.
  • Ketones appear in the urine. Ketones are the result of the breakdown of fat and muscle due to insufficient insulin.

Treatment of Diabetes

The type of diabetes experienced will determine the treatment given. Here are some treatments that can be applied:

1. Drugs

Insulin therapy will be given to people with type 1 diabetes so that their blood sugar is normal. Meanwhile, drugs will be prescribed for people with type 2 diabetes, for example metformin, to reduce sugar production and optimize insulin function. The doctor will also provide vitamins or supplements to prevent complications.

2. Healthy lifestyle

Diabetics are encouraged to adopt a healthy diet, namely increasing vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and foods low in fat and calories. In addition, sufferers are recommended to exercise regularly and be physically active. Consult your doctor to find out which sports and physical activities are right for you. Patients will also be given an HbA1C test schedule which aims to monitor glucose levels in the last 2-3 months.

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